Int Immunopharmacol. 2005
Grosman N, Diel F.
Department of Pharmacology, The Panum Institute, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3, DK-2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark. firstname.lastname@example.org
Pyrethroids are widely used insecticides of low acute toxicity in mammals but the consequences of long-term exposure are of concern. Their insecticidal action is related to neurotoxicity and, in addition, there are indications of mammalian immunotoxicity. In order to clarify structure-activity relationships of the membrane interactions of pyrethroids, the present study compared the influence of selected pyrethroids, i.e. permethrin and the more water soluble esbiol (S-bioallethrin), both type I, and cyfluthrin, type II, on the Ca(2+)-ATPase activity of rat brain synaptosomes and peritoneal leukocyte membranes. The pyrethroids were tested alone as well as mixed with the enhancing substance piperonyl butoxide (PBO) at concentration ratios of 1:5 and 1:10. At the highest concentration tested, permethrin (10 microM) alone inhibited the ATPase activity of leukocyte membranes by 20%, whereas the synaptosomes were affected less. Esbiol and cyfluthrin alone did not affect either membrane preparation significantly, whereas PBO (50 microM) alone caused 10-15% inhibition. Mixtures of either pyrethroid with PBO inhibited the ATPase activity of both types of membranes (up to 40% inhibition) in a synergistic manner, which always tended to be supra-additive. With esbiol a true potentiation took place. The synergistic interaction between pyrethroid and PBO was most apparent with mixtures of a concentration ratio of 1:5. The ATPase activity of leukocyte membranes tended to be more susceptible to inhibition than that of synaptosomes. The results are in accordance with the assumption that the mammalian toxicity of pyrethroids can be ascribed to a general disturbance of cell membrane function in neuronal tissue. The results indicate that it may also be the case in the immune apparatus.
PMID: 15652757 [PubMed – in process]