Shafer TJ, Rijal SO, Gross GW.
Neurotoxicology Division, MD-B105-05, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, United States.
Neurotoxicology. 2008 Jan 19
Types I and II pyrethroid insecticides cause temporally distinct decreases in voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) inactivation rates that are proposed to underlie their characteristic differences in toxicity signs. How alterations in VGSC channel function give rise to the characteristic differences in signs of pyrethroid intoxication is not completely understood, particularly those changes that occur in functional networks of interconnected neurons. To characterize better pyrethroid actions at the network level, effects of the Type I pyrethroid permethrin (PM) and the Type II pyrethroid deltamethrin (DM) on spontaneous glutamate network-dependent spikes and bursts were investigated in primary cultures of frontal cortex or spinal cord neurons grown on microelectrode arrays (MEAs). Fast GABAergic transmission was blocked by BIC, and concentration-dependent effects of DM (1nM to 5muM) and PM (10nM to 50muM) were examined. Both compounds caused concentration-dependent reductions in the network spike and burst rates. DM was more potent than PM, with IC(50) values of approximately 0.13 and approximately 4muM for inhibition of spike rate in cortical and spinal cord neurons, respectively. Both compounds decreased the percentage of spikes that occurred within a burst and increased the interspike interval within bursts. Onset of effects was rapid, but recovery from total activity loss was not readily achievable. Individual neurons responded heterogeneously; activity of most declined monophasically, but activity in others exhibited biphasic responses with increases followed by decreases in activity. In spinal cord, DM caused a greater number of biphasic responses (29%) than PM (10%). These results demonstrate that both DM and PM inhibit activity of glutamatergic networks, but with different potencies.
PMID: 18304643 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]